Greater Somalia into a Stateless Somalia - History & Reasons:
They call some people “The Tallest and Handsome People”. This country was called “The Poet's Country”. They called this country with love as the Horn of Africa. The Country which was called by good names is now devastated. Somalia is the Country.
What happened in Somalia?
Somalia had Abundant Natural Resources which was stolen.
How did the country lose its Natural Resources?
Why has Somalia been devastated by Ethnic Fighting and Terrorists?
What was the world Politics behind Somalia?
What were the mysteries?
Is it Ghosts or Humans who are responsible for this devastation?
Let's discuss in detail.
Ethiopia to the west and Kenya to the south-west. The African countries are on the other side of Somalia. The Indian Ocean to the east, Somalia is the country which did exist.
How did Indians reach Europe in ancient times?
The answer was they used Somalia to reach Europe. So Somalia was a Bridge between India and the European Union. Somalia had abundant Natural resources.
But if you look at the recent stats, every minute a Human life has been lost due to hunger in Somalia.
They call Somalian People as Sea Pirates. The International community says that Somalia is filled with Terrorists.
What happened in Somalia?
We should educate our younger Generation about the Country. If we learn the History of Somalia we can change the Future Events.
The name Somalia would have derived from the word Somali. In Tamil, there is a word called “Soo” which means to go. Mali means Milk. There were many cows and they used the words “Soo” and Mali to Squeeze the Milk out of a cow. This is just a conspiracy theory we don't have definite proof.
The language which the people speak is Somali and the Country got its name as Somalia. This is the truth.
So we discussed that Somalia had high numbers of Livestock. To feed the Livestock the Country should have Many Natural resources and grass Fields. So the Humans would have been dependent on the Livestock. The Ethnic Groups must have been dependent on these People. There were chances that so many Ethnic Groups Existed in Somalia.
Like other African Countries, Somalia didn't have other Languages, Religion or Race. Somalia had one language, One Religion and One Culture. But Somalia had many Ethnic Groups.
The Somalis say that they have Arab Origins. So in the Arab Coalition, there is a place for Somalia. So we now know that the Arabians had control over Somalia.
Who is dividing the country?
Countries like England, France and Italy divide Somalia among them. They change the country into a Colony. Somalia comes under Colonization. The British called their part of the country as Somaliland. Under the Italian banner, the Region was called Trust Territory of Somalia and Italian Somalia. After many struggles, Somalia got its Independence in 1960.
After Independence, the issues started to happen in Somalia. The Independent country craved for a Country for the Somali’s and called it Somalia. But there were people who spoke the Somali Language who resided in some regions of Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali People who were in Ethiopia region were ruled by the Ethiopian Govt. After the independence of Somalia, the people who lived in the regions of Ethiopia and Kenya were unable to connect the regions with their Homeland. In 1960 Somalia Republic was born.
The Somali’s created a Constitution for their country. Elections were held in the country and Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke became the Prime Minister of Somalia. He pursued Non-aligned and Neutral Foreign Policy. He helped the country grow.
Now we should know the World Politics which was happening at that time. The Cold war was at its peak. After World War 2, America and Russia were engaged in the Cold war. In the 1960's Ethiopia was under Monarchy Rule. In the African Continent, Ethiopia was the only country to have a Monarchy in the 1960s. America supported the Monarch of Ethiopia. The King of Ethiopia was a puppet to America.
So Somalia which was a neighbouring country of Ethiopia was supported by the USSR. So the Soviet Union helped Somalia in Military Logistics. In 1969 Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was assassinated by his own bodyguards. But the motive of the Assassination is unknown.
After the Assassination, A Military Coup d'etat was attempted and the Somali Army Seized Power, Major General Mohamed Siad Barre commanded the army.
General Mohamed Said Barre Objective was to turn the country towards Socialism. So Somalia adopted Scientific Socialism with the support of the USSR.
In the 1970s the African countries started their protest against Monarchy, Enslavement and against the Foreign Countries. This was the time USSR’s Communism started to spread all over the world. To stop the spread of Communism, America has to engage in Wars with many countries. America wanted to wage a war against Somalia. But the USSR was a firm Ally to Somalia.
We don't know whether America was behind the Civil Crisis in Ethiopia. Before the Civil Crisis in Ethiopia, Somalia thought that it had adopted Socialism. There were many Ethnic groups in Somalia. But the people of Somalia forgot all their differences and gathered together for their country. The Somalia which was united by Nationalism was destroyed by an event.
Siad Barre who became the president of Somalia after the 1969 Coup D'etat, passed the Somalia Land Law of 1975.
What did the Somalia Land Law of 1975 say?
All Land in the country belonged to the government. If the people have documents to prove that the land belonged to them. Then the Govt would approve the Ownership of the land. If there were no documents the land belonged to the Govt.
Until the Law, People have been farming the lands for years. Their Livestock grew in these lands. The land was with the People for Generations.
What is the Connection between Somalia and Tamil?
The Somali’s were poets who sung their history to other people. The Literature which has gone missing from the Tamil People. If a Village Elder who sang these Sings passed away before passing the Knowledge to the Next Generation, that part of the History was lost. The Somali’s didn't document their history but they sang poems.
So the regions and lands where the people have lived for Generations. They didn't have any agreements or Documents. The lands were allocated to the people based on Trust.
So people who produced documents were the people who have accepted the Socialist Policy. People who were in the Ethnic group of Siad Barre and the Govt Employees. So the lands were occupied by showing fake documents. The people who depended on their land for a living were fooled. When other people occupied their Land which the people had for generations. They lost their only way to survive. So this disappointment became Anger.
The problems started when one Ethnic Group member came forward and claimed another man’s land who belonged to another Ethnic Group. This issue was taken in front of the Govt. The land was given to the Ethnic Group which supported the Govt. So one Ethnic Group was robbing another ethnic group of its land.
A Clash between two Ethnic Groups may happen. IF the Two Ethnic groups discuss and solve their issues there is no problem. But when the issue goes to the Authoritarian govt which supports only one Ethnic Group. When the government favours one Ethnic Group in Land Feuds, Employment, and access to Natural Resources. The other Ethnic Group was Suppressed. They have robbed the Livelihood. The government doesn't support the Ethnic group in any way. This issue becomes an act against a particular Ethnic Group. If somebody speaks against the Govt, the govt will seize the land and announce it as Govt Property. So no one dared to speak against the government.
The Livelihood of one ethnic group was robbed and they were unable to speak against the government. The next big issue was a dream of Siad Barre, a Concept called Greater Somalia.
We discussed Previously that After the Independence of Somalia. Somali’s people were living in some regions in Ethiopia. Siad Barre's dream was to Occupy these regions in Ethiopia with Somalia and call it Greater Somalia. At this time, There was a Civil Crisis in Ethiopia. During the Civil crisis in 1975, Monarchy was abolished. A Govt which adopted the Communist Policy took power in Ethiopia.
Somalia wanted to use this Civil Unrest to their advantage. Somalia thought that the Influence of America over Ethiopia was over. The USSR was helping Ethiopia. Somalia National Army invaded Ethiopia which was called the Ogaden War. The army was first successful in capturing most of the territory in Ogaden where Somali Population resided.
But the USSR supported Ethiopia because it became a communist state. The USSR stopped aid of Siad Barre and started supplying Military Logistics to Ethiopia. USSR's concern was Ethiopia had just turned into a Communist state after the Civil Crisis. If Somalia fights in the war, America’s Influence over Ethiopia may come back to haunt the USSR. The Soviet Union wanted Somalia to be its Slave.
When the USSR was supporting Ethiopia, America reached out to Somalia and started to help them. So the Soviet Union who was a friend to Somalia changed into the enemy. America who was the enemy changed into an Ally for Somalia.
Control over Somalia was the Priority for America and the Soviet Union. Weapons were given to ethnic groups.
Who received the weapons?
The Ethnic Groups Who lost their lands. Ethnic groups who were unemployed received the weapons. The People who belonged to an ethnic group who spoke against the Somali govt and were arrested by the govt. Weapons were given to many Ethnic Groups.
The ethnic Groups wanted to safeguard their group. They came to the conclusion that Somalia was not a United Country.
The same ethnic Groups years ago left their differences to Create a Country called the Somalia Republic. When there were issues between the Ethnic Groups they came to the conclusion that their own Ethnic Group should Survive. So the Military equipment was supplied to various Ethnic Groups.
The Civil war starts. The people who lost their lands now fought against the Opposite Ethnic Group who had occupied their lands. There were problems for Somali’s in Ethiopia, So they came back to their country for Employment. At this time Somalia was facing Hunger, Poverty and Unemployment. Somali’s come into the country as Refugees from Ethiopia.
You may have a doubt,
How did Hunger and Poverty come into the country which had abundant Natural Resources?
Through the Somalia Land Law of 1975, The Hardworking people lost their lands. The lands were stolen by Rich People and the People who were in Power. They looked at the land as property but neglected to see that these are Agricultural lands and had Abundant Natural resources. Due to this farming went down and the livestock died in huge numbers.
Somalia is a country which has faced many droughts. Somali’s always recovered after a drought.
But in the 1990s the fight between the Ethnic Groups got intense. They started declaring war against Ethnic Groups. The Superpower Countries supplied Somali’s with weapons to wage war against their Own People.
The grass fields are now crushed under the weight of Tanks. The farming grounds become unusable. If agriculture goes down the Livestock cannot survive. The Ethnic groups needed money to wage war. So they cut down trees, burned them and made them into Charcoal. The Ethnic Groups started to export the Charcoal. They destroy their own Natural resources to wage war.
They waged war and Killed Innocent people to occupy small lands. After so many years of Civil war, there was no Govt to govern the people.
Somalia had no Govt. But half of Somalia was coastal regions. The Foreign countries fishing ships enter the Somalia waters and rob the fish resources. An Ethnic Group started fighting against these Foreign Ships who were robbing their Fish Resources. They started to capture these International Ships. The Ships which belonged to countries wanted their ships back and were ready to pay the Ethnic group.
The Somali people who have lost their livelihood have found a way to make a living which offered them huge sums of money. The Somali People once who were farmers and fishermen have now been turned into Sea Pirates.
Natural resources are gone. Hunger and Poverty are everywhere. To Survive the people became Pirates.
The Somali People did not protect their Natural Resources. They took up arms against their brothers. They started fighting among themselves as ethnic groups. They started a Civil war. Now Somalia as a country is no more. Between all this, they were also called Terrorists and many people were hunted down. Somalia has lost many leaders.
Thus the Somalia Republic became a Stateless Country. Many regions in the country are occupied by many foreign countries. Somaliland is the only region which remains.
In 1960, the Somalia Republic landscape was reduced ten times which is now called Stateless Somalia. Still, the People of Somalia are suffering from Hunger and Poverty.
This is not a story about a country which went missing in a day. Somalia is a warning to the countries which have a Civil crisis.
Please compare the Dream of Greater Somalia with Current Somalia and please do comment.
This is the short version of the history of a Country.
Comments about this post are Most Welcome.
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